The activity that consists of exchanging goods and services is as old as man, and it has become more complex. Marketing deals with the systematized study of the market to know the product or service's possibilities bearing in mind consumers' likes, desires and needs. However, market research is just the first step; from the resulting analysis, the mechanism starts to arouse the desire to obtain the product or service. There are certain divisions within marketing:
- Passive marketing is the work done with a monopolized company. Since this one does not need to promote the offer, compete as regards prices or improve the product or service that it offers, marketing has a passive role.
- Organizing marketing works in the market's regions that are growing. In these regions, it is quite common the appearance of new companies with new products, which consumers will not buy due to its features or to satisfy their needs, but they will buy them out of curiosity. However, curiosity is not enough to sell a product, it is in this region that the price is the key variable.
- Active marketing is used in a steady and consolidated market. The work of this type of marketing is done with products which are known by consumers and to which they are accustomed. At this stage of market, as opposed to the previous one, companies not only compete as regards prices but also they do it in a wider range of possibilities. To cover them all, marketing analyses consumers' likes, needs, goals, desires, etc. to get as much information as possible in order to apply it, so that the company leads the market, transforming the product and organizing ad campaigns. In this state of the market, where the price is only one of the variables that are at stake, so are the product's quality, usage, durability and the satisfaction it brings when acquiring it.
- Social marketing is a merely theoretical category. Supposedly, it is the area of marketing which helps the company to satisfy all social needs without any interests. That is to say, something never seen. But a phony social marketing is actually applied, which consists of a company taking care of the social needs in a patriarchal way in order to improve its image and to increase its profits.
Next we will see some of the variables marketing deals with in order to analyze a product or a market.
- The product: The first step of a marketing campaign is to study the product that will be sold from two different points of view. It is incorrect to exclusively think of the product and its features leaving aside its destination. The product's destination is the market, consumers, and it is highly important to know this destination to combine both the product's analysis and the target group's analysis. The target group is a group of consumers that share the same features and behaviors when buying goods and services.
- The advertising: The ad process begins after analyzing the product relating its intrinsic features with the target group. This ad stage is the one that informs about the product, it makes it known and invites you to buy it. Advertising persuasively informs consumers about the features of a certain product.
- The promotion: It complements the product's advertising. If a product's ad is not bearing the expected results, promotion is used in order to do it. Promoting a product means adding something extra to make it more interesting and convenient. From offering a greater quantity for the same price to adding other products as a gift, promotion has many and different ways. The interest that the product has thanks to promotion will not be kept forever. The idea of promotion is that people know the product and consider it better than they thought it was, or that people get used to using it and, once the promotion is finished, keep buying it afterwards.
- The price: This variable is not as moldable as the others. The product's price cannot be fixed by adding what it has cost and what you want to get from it. Market decides prices and companies have to adjust to them. A marketing expert will be able to slightly mold this variable or advise a company not to manufacture a given product since it will not be able to charge what they want for it.
- Sale venues: «Where do people go to buy what you manufacture?» This is the question that a marketing expert asks to a businessman. Knowing where to sell the manufactured products is one of the most important points to increase sales.